VO-CRO In Vivo Imaging

VO-CRO’s scientists are highly experienced in a number of in vivo imaging techniques to detect differences in ocular pathology between treatment groups. Depending on the method chosen, these can be incorporated throughout or at the conclusion of your in vivo study to more effectively measure the desired effects of experimental compounds.

Preclinical Ophthalmic Imaging Techniques

VO-CRO uses imaging techniques that are actively used in the clinic to gain the most relevant pre-clinical data for your study. We can assist you in choosing the most appropriate imaging technique to complement your study design and accomplish your goals.


After expert dissection by a trained microsurgeon, whole retinas are stained and flatmounted for use in any number of readouts, including neovascularization measurements, retinal digest assays, and leukostasis, and vasoregression quantification. Images are captured at the highest resolution using conventional brightfield, fluorescence, or confocal microscopy.

Transverse Sections

Retinas can be paraffin embedded or frozen for conventional histology or immunohistochemistry. Morphometrical analysis of captured images can be used to support findings of efficacy or neurotoxicity.

We can work with you to determine the best disease model for your needs. Contact us today to learn more.

Contact VO-CRO

Optical Coherence Tomography

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive imaging technique that shows the layers of the retina and allows for assessment of cellular organization and measurement of retinal thickness. OCT angiography allows for high-resolution study of retinal vasculature.

Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy

Scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) is used to capture images of the fundus and retina. SLO can be used with adaptive optics (AO-SLO) to acquire en face images throughout the depth of the retina, allowing for resolution of individual retinal layers and cells.

Fluorescein Angiography

In fluorescein angiography (FA), a fluorescent dye is injected into an animal’s bloodstream, illuminating the retinal vasculature. Sequential timing can be used to investigate fluorescein leakage as a measure of vascular permeability.

Fundus Photography

Fundus photography captures images of the retina and allows for observation of changes in retinal pathology under different experimental conditions. In combination with other forms of imaging, such as fluorescein angiography, it allows us to gain a more complete understanding of the ocular features of study subjects.

VO-CRO has extensive experience in pre-clinical models of ocular disease. Learn more.